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*Turabian Style*

In-Text Citation


Telling the Reader Where to Find the Information

When you use someone else's thoughts, words, or information, you need to alert the reader.  Not only does this give credit to the source, but it also gives the reader a way to find the original.  In-text citation points the reader to the appropriate source in your bibliography.


How to Format it

Author-Date System:

  • Turabian Author-Date style consists of an in text citation composed of the author’s last name and a year of publication, with a corresponding entry in the “References” or “Works Cited” reference list (or bibliography) at the end of the paper. The author’s name is followed by the publication year of the work, followed by a comma and a specific page number if one is being cited.
  • These parenthetical citations go at the end of the sentence which refers to the research
  • If you are using information from more than one reference source from your reference list, put all sources in one in text citation. Separate the sources by a semi-colon.

(From Turabian Style: 9th Edition Author-Date Style, University Libraries, University of Georgia)


Notes and bibliography system:

  • Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper. 
  • In the text, note numbers are superscripted. 
    • Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after any and all punctuation. 
    • In the notes themselves, note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable). 
    • The first line of a footnote is indented .5” from the left margin. 
    • Subsequent lines within a footnote should be formatted flush left. 
    • Leave an extra line space between footnotes. 
    • Place commentary after documentation when a footnote contains both, separated by a period. 
      • In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon. 
      • Do not repeat the hundreds digit in a page range if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range. 

(From Purdue OWL)


Further Resources for Help

The following resources can be used to see more examples of in-text citation.  They also provide more detailed instruction for a variety of different circumstances when additional information is needed to indicate the source.