How to Cite a Direct Quote (pp.270-278)
How to Cite Summaries or Paraphrases
Even if you put information in your own words by summarizing or paraphrasing, you must cite the original author or researcher and the date of publication. You are also encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number; check with your instructor to see if page numbers are required.
For example, a paraphrase of Gibaldi’s earlier quotation might be identified as follows:
Within the research paper, quotations will have more impact when used judiciously (Gibaldi, 2003, p. 109).
You may want to check out The Owl at Purdue for more tips on paraphrasing.
How to Cite Sources when the Primary Authors have the same Surname (p.267-268)
How to Cite Different Numbers of Authors
How to Cite Information When You Have Not Seen the Original Source (p.258)
How to Cite when you are Altering a Direct Quote
Start the Reference list on a new page and include the word "References" in bold and centered. (p. 303)
The References list should be double-spaced. Each entry should be formatted with a hanging indent (p.303).
References cited in text must appear in the References list and vice versa. The only exceptions to this rule are personal communications; they are cited in text only and are not included in the References list (p.257).
Use ONLY the initial(s) of the author’s given name, NOT the full name (p.286).
If the References list includes 2 or more entries by the same author(s), list them in chronological order with the earliest first (pp. 304-305).
Arrange References entries in one alphabetical sequence by the surname of the first author or by title or first word if there is no author (pp.303-304, 306). Ignore the words A, An, and The when alphabetizing by title.
In titles and subtitles of articles, chapters, and books, capitalize only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns (p.291).
Italicize book titles, journal titles, and volume numbers. Do NOT italicize issue numbers (pp. 291, 294).
Do NOT include retrieval dates unless the source of the material may change over time such as a blog entry or wikis. (p.290)
If a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is listed on either a print or an electronic source it is included in the reference (pp.299-300). A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that is used to identify a certain source (typically journal articles). It is often found on the first page of an article. Example: https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200410001676305
When the References entry includes a URL that must be divided between two lines, let your word-processing program do it for you automatically. (p.300).
For a helpful list of some of the abbreviations used in References (such as Vols. for Volumes) check out page 306-307 of the APA Manual.