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APA Citation Guide, 7th edition: Journal Article with 2 Authors

Digital Object Identifier (DOI) (pp. 298-300)


What is a DOI? A DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. 

NOTE: It is regarded as the most important part of the citation because it will accurately direct users to the specific article.

Think of it as a "digital fingerprint" or an article's DNA!

FYI - Updated rules on using DOI (January 2020):




  • http://doi:10.1186/1471-2288-12-114
  • doi:10.1186/1471-2288-12-114
  • doi:http://doi:10.1186/1471-2288-12-114
  • Retrieved from http://doi:10.1186/1471-2288-12-114

Journal Article with Two Authors (p. 317, 318)

Helpful Tips:              

DOI: If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference.  You will not have to include the URL of the journal's home page or of the database from which you retrieved the article if a DOI is available.

Online Database: If you viewed a journal article in an online databaseand it does not have a DOI, you do not include a url for the article or database (p. 299).

Print: If you viewed a journal article in its print format, be sure to check if it has a DOI listed.  If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article.

Date: When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication.

General Format 

      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      (Author Surname & Author Surname, Year)
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (Author Surname & Author Surname, Year, page number)
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue), page range. OR URL of journal if retrieved from a website  
Example 1
      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):
      (Paterson & Thorne, 2003)
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (Paterson & Thorne, 2003, p. 30)
Paterson, B. L., & Thorne, S. (2003). Enhancing the evaluation of nursing care effectiveness. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 35(3), 26-38.
Example 2
      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      (Kajiura & Tellman, 2016)
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (Kajiura & Tellman, 2016, p. 4)
Kajiura, S. M., & Tellman, S. L. (2016, March 30). Quantification of massive seasonal aggregations of blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) in southeast Florida.  PLOS One, 11(3), Article e0150911.


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